Are you feeling thirsty? Well, look no further than the Coca-Cola Company, the global soft-drink beverage company with the ticker symbol KO. This refreshing company offers a wide range of beverages that are loved by people all around the world.

## Quench Your Thirst with KO: Coca-Cola Company’s Refreshing Beverages

The Coca-Cola Company has been quenching thirsts for over a century. From the classic and iconic Coca-Cola to the refreshing Sprite, this company has a beverage for every taste and preference. In addition, the company offers a range of low-calorie and zero-sugar options for those looking for a healthier alternative.

But it’s not just about the taste. The Coca-Cola Company is committed to sustainability and reducing its environmental impact. They are constantly exploring innovative ways to reduce their use of water and energy in their production process. So, not only can you enjoy a refreshing beverage, but you can feel good about the company’s efforts to protect the planet.

## From Classic Coke to New Flavors: Discover the Global Reach of KO

The Coca-Cola Company’s beverages are enjoyed across the world, with over 200 countries selling their products. They are constantly innovating and introducing new flavors to their lineup, such as the popular Cherry Coke and the exotic Fanta Mango. No matter where you are, you can always find a Coca-Cola product to quench your thirst.

But the company’s global reach isn’t just about beverages. They also have a strong presence in the community, supporting local charities and organizations. Through initiatives like the Coca-Cola Foundation, the company is able to give back to the communities that have supported them for over a century.

In conclusion, the Coca-Cola Company is more than just a beverage company. They are committed to providing refreshing drinks while also protecting the environment and supporting their local communities. So, the next time you’re feeling thirsty, reach for a refreshing Coca-Cola product and feel good about your choice.

Coca-Cola Company is a global soft-drink beverage company (ticker symbol + KO) that is a primary and direct competitor with PepsiCo. The data in Chapter 12’s Exhibits 12.13–12.15 include the actual amounts for 2008 and projected amounts for Year +1 to Year +6 for the income statements, balance sheets, and statements of cash flows for Coca-Cola (in millions).

The market equity beta for Coca-Cola at the end of 2008 is 0.61. Assume that the risk-free interest rate is 4.0 percent and the market risk premium is 6.0 percent. Coca-Cola has 2,312 million shares outstanding at the end of 2008, when Coca-Cola’s share price was $44.42.

In this problem, we use these actual and projected financial statement data to apply the techniques in Chapter 14 to compute Coca-Cola’s required rate of return on equity and share value based on the value-to-book valuation model. We also compare our value-to-book ratio estimate to Coca-Cola’s market-to-book ratio at the end of 2008 to determine an investment recommendation. In addition, we compute the value-earnings and price-earnings ratios and the price differential and we reverse-engineer Coca-Cola’s share price as of the end of 2008.

Required

Part I—Computing Coca-Cola’s Value-to-Book Ratio Using the Value-to-Book Valuation Approach.

a. Use the CAPM to compute the required rate of return on common equity capital for Coca-Cola.

b. Using the projected financial statements in Chapter 12’s Exhibits 12.13–12.15, derive the projected residual ROCE (return on common shareholders’ equity) for Coca-Cola for Years +1 through +5.

c. Assume that the steady-state long-run growth rate will be 3 percent in Year +6 and beyond. Project that the Year +5 income statement and balance sheet amounts will grow by 3 percent in Year +6; then derive the projected residual ROCE for Year +6 for Coca-Cola.

d. Using the required rate of return on common equity from Part a as a discount rate, compute the sum of the present value of residual ROCE for Coca-Cola for Years +1 through +5.

e. Using the required rate of return on common equity from Part a as a discount rate and the long-run growth rate from Part c, compute the continuing value of Coca-Cola as of the start of Year +6 based on Coca-Cola’s continuing residual ROCE in Year +6 and beyond. After computing continuing value as of the start of Year +6, discount it to present value at the start of Year +1.

f. Compute Coca-Cola’s value-to-book ratio as of the end of 2008 with the following three steps: (1) Compute the total sum of the present value of all future residual ROCE (from Parts d and e). (2) To the total from (1), add 1 (representing the book value of equity as of the beginning of the valuation as of the end of 2008).

(3) Adjust the total sum from (2) using the midyear discounting adjustment factor.

g. Compute Coca-Cola’s market-to-book ratio as of the end of 2008. Compare the value-to-book ratio to the market-to-book ratio. What investment decision does the comparison suggest? What does the comparison suggest regarding the pricing of Coca-Cola shares in the market: underpriced, overpriced, or fairly priced?

h. Use the value-to-book ratio to project the value of a share of common equity in Coca-Cola.

i. If you computed Coca-Cola’s common equity share value using the free cash flows to common equity valuation approach in Problem 12.16 in Chapter 12 and/or the residual income valuation approach in Problem 13.19 in Chapter 13, compare the value estimate you obtained in those problems with the estimate you obtained in this case. You should obtain the same value estimates under all three approaches. If you have not yet worked those problems, you would benefit from doing so now.

Part II—Analyzing Coca-Cola’s Share Price Using the Value-Earnings Ratio, the Price- Earnings Ratio, Price Differentials, and Reverse Engineering

j. Use the forecast data for Year +1 to project Year +1 earnings per share. To do so, divide the projection of Coca-Cola’s comprehensive income available for common shareholders in Year +1 by the number of common shares outstanding at the end of 2008. Using this Year +1 earnings-per-share forecast and using the share value computed in Part h, compute Coca-Cola’s value-earnings ratio.

k. Using the Year +1 earnings-per-share forecast from Part j and using the share price at the end of 2008, compute Coca-Cola’s price-earnings ratio. Compare Coca-Cola’s value-earnings ratio with its price-earnings ratio. What investment decision does the comparison suggest? What does the comparison suggest regarding the pricing of Coca-Cola shares in the market: underpriced, overpriced, or fairly priced? Does this comparison lead to the same conclusions you reached when comparing value-to-book ratios with market-to-book ratios in Part g?

l. Compute Coca-Cola’s price differential at the end of 2008. Compute Coca-Cola’s price differential as a percentage of Coca-Cola’s risk-neutral value. What dollar amount and what percentage amount has the market discounted Coca-Cola shares for risk?

m. Reverse-engineer Coca-Cola’s share price at the end of 2008 to solve for the implied expected rate of return. First, assume that value equals price and that the earnings and growth forecasts through Year +6 and beyond are reliable proxies for the market’s expectations for Coca-Cola. Then solve for the implied expected rate of return (the discount rate) the market has impounded in Coca-Cola’s share price. (Begin with the forecast and valuation spreadsheet you developed to value Coca-Cola shares. Vary the discount rate until you solve for the discount rate that makes your value estimate exactly equal the end of 2008 market price of $44.42 per share.)

n. Reverse-engineer Coca-Cola’s share price at the end of 2008 to solve for the implied expected long-run growth. First, assume that value equals price and that the earnings forecasts through Year +5 are reliable proxies for the market’s expectations for Coca-Cola. Also assume that the discount rate implied by the CAPM (computed in Part a) is a reliable proxy for the market’s expected rate of return. Then solve for the implied expected long-run growth rate the market has impounded in Coca-Cola’s share price. (Begin with the forecast and valuation spreadsheet you developed to value Coca-Cola shares and use the CAPM discount rate. Set the long-run growth parameter initially to zero. Increase the long-run growth rate until you solve for the growth rate that makes your value estimate exactly equal the end of 2008 market price of $44.42 per share.)

Coca Cola Company is a global soft drink beverage company ticke

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